Resilient Peer Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress
Resilient Peer Treatment (RPT) is a classroom-based intervention that involves pairing a traumatized or maltreated child with resilient peers or "play buddies." Under the supervision of a trained parent assistant, a target child develops social competency in a natural classroom environment through a series of unstructured play activities.
Eye Movement Desensitization & Reprocessing (EMDR) for Posttraumatic Stress
EMDR treatment, which incorporates some elements of cognitive behavioral therapy, targets the distressing memories of young people suffering from symptoms of PTSD. Child and adolescent clients begin by identifying trauma-related images and sensations, as well as negative self-beliefs associated with these memories. Next, clients are exposed to feared sensations by concentrating on various details surrounding these memories while tracking therapists' hand movements with their eyes. During the later, "reprocessing" stages of treatment, clients are instructed to focus on positive cognitions regarding the memory during further sets of eye movements.
Child-Centered Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress
Child-Centered Therapy (CCT) is based on research evidence suggesting that traumatized children and their parents often develop difficulties because they both experience a violation of trust and disempowerment. The treatment, which focuses on the relationship between parents/caregivers and the effected child or adolescent, aims to reverse these difficulties by (re)establishing a therapeutic parent-child relationship. Importantly, children and parents are encouraged to determine their own structure, content, and pace of treatment.
Family Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress
With the understanding that families may play a vital role in the treatment of maltreated or otherwise traumatized children and adolescents, Family Therapy for PTSD is designed to optimize overall family functioning, as well as enhance relationships between individuals. Family clinic sessions are combined with periodic home visits as treatment progresses through phases which include engagement, assessment, education, skill building, application, and termination.
Child-Parent Psychotherapy for Posttraumatic Stress
A major premise behind Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) is that a child's attachment to his/her caregivers serves as the main root from which he/she organizes responses to danger and safety during the first years of life. As such, when a young person develops extreme and maladaptive responses to perceived danger in the wake of trauma, CPP interventions utilize the parent-child relationship as the agent of change. Therapists guide parent-child pairs to develop supportive interactions as they co-construct the "story" of traumatic events and move towards their resolution.
12 Step Program (Minnesota Model) for Substance Abuse
The 12-Step Program, which utilizes the Minnesota Model approach, is believed to be the most widely practiced therapeutic intervention in the United States to treat adolescent substance abuse. The program combines the basic features of psychotherapy with the 12 steps and the core philosophy of life-style change based on the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Adolescent clients are typically involved in a variety of treatment components, including group and family therapy, individual counseling, lectures, reading, and writing assignments about the 12 steps of AA, school study sessions, and recreational and occupational therapy.
Psychoanalytic Therapy for Anorexia Nervosa
Psychoanalytic Therapy for anorexia nervosa is based on a modern formulation of psychoanalysis called "self psychology." According to the self psychological viewpoint, eating disorders arise from adolescents' inability to rely on other human beings to satisfy their emotional needs. Instead, these adolescents turn to food-either to its consumption or avoidance-for fulfillment of these needs. In psychoanalytic therapy, which generally progresses over a number of years, adolescents learn to give up their pathological preference for food in favor of relying on human beings for support.
Cash's Body Image Therapy, plus Virtual Reality for Anorexia Nervosa
Cash's Body Image Therapy, plus Virtual Reality aims to treat adolescents suffering from anorexia nervosa by attempting to improve their self-perceived body image. The treatment, which may consist of individual as well as group therapy, incorporates the use of education and other cognitive behavioral techniques such as exposure to feared objects or situations (e.g., mirrors), often with the assistance of virtual reality simulations.